Associate Professor of English, University of Michigan-Flint. I research and teach rhetoric and writing.
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Need an idea for a climate-friendly gift? We have 79.

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Q. Dear Umbra,

What are good holiday gifts that are environmentally responsible?

— Seeking A “New Toys!” Antidote

A. Dear SANTA,

I love presents. I do! But I also know that purposeless consumerism lies at the heart of so much climate evil. And the December holidays are the grand championship of consumerist culture; everyone spends all year gearing up to do their most intense and crazed shopping for a lot of unneeded items, just to show their appreciation for their loved ones.

That desire to show appreciation for loved ones is a marvelous, beautiful thing, and gifts are a great way to do it! But if you’re stumped as to what a climate-conscious present might look like, worry no more. I’ve put together no fewer than 79 ideas, at a wide variety of price points (from free to Tesla!), grouped into themed categories. Each one of these gifts is intended to make a more climate-conscious life easier and more enjoyable, because isn’t that the real holiday dream?

Please consider this hopefully helpful collection of ideas my holiday gift to you.




  1. Train travel, especially in the U.S., can be cost-prohibitive. For the person who wants to be more rail-mobile: an Amtrak gift card.
  2. If you’re feeling even more ambitious and creative, you can plan a plane-free travel itinerary to a destination your friend has been wanting to visit, complete with fun stops along the way.
  3. Look, I love my e-bike. If you love someone who’s been wanting to bike more (and if you’re prepared to throw down a few grand), an e-bike is an excellent present.
  4. … Or, you can pay for them to get their regular bike converted into an e-bike.
  5. OK, OK, there are lots of people not as hill- or sweating-averse as I am who would be really happy with a good old-fashioned analog bike.
  6. For the seasoned bike owner, well, those things can always be upgraded with gadgets and repairs. Voila, a gift certificate to a local bike accessories and repair shop!
  7. If your pal’s city has a bike or scooter program like Spin, Lime, or Jump, get them a shared micromobility credit that they can put toward exploring their town on two wheels. (Note: Citibike in New York offers a gift credit option, but Spin, Jump, and Lime do not. So you might have to borrow their phone and enter your payment info yourself. Look, not all gifts are graceful.)
  8. If your friend has wanted an electric car but keeps getting hung up on having the proper charging infrastructure available, offer to help design or pay for a charging station at their home.
  9. Hell, you could also buy them an electric car. Perhaps this is your husband or your mom, or someone you’ve greatly wronged and need to make it up to, and you have a lot of extra cash to throw around this year. Maybe you’ve just always wanted to do that thing where you put a huge red sticky bow on the hood of a car! (The Verge has a helpful guide for electric car shopping.)


  1. City-dwellers regularly feel isolated from nature, which can result in tangible mental health problems. Antidote? A guidebook to local flora and fauna that can be used to explore all the clandestine nature that cities have to offer.
  2. Lots of cities have urban walking or biking tours that offer a zero-carbon way to explore and hey, meet people.
  3. Pay for a class on native plant horticulture for the gardener in your circle. (Here’s why native plants are important for ecosystems.)
  4. Know any recent homeowners? Offer yourself as free labor to help them tear up their lawn and plant native species there instead.
  5. Or buy them a native plant. Audubon offices around the country offer lists of trees, shrubs, and flowers that are native to the region. Plant them and make birds and insects happy.
  6. It’s good for your mental health to get out in the wild from time to time. Get a friend who’s been anxious or depressed a regional, state, or national parks pass — and offer to drive them out for some good tree time..
  7. Already got someone you regularly take on the trail? Get them a framed print of a photo of you in the wilderness together — exploring nature or marveling at it in some way — to brighten stressful days stuck indoors.
  8. Your friends with kids might kiss you if you offer to pay for the young ones to go to a local nature camp for a week or two during the summer. It’s a win-win: Instilling the next generation with a love for all things green, and solving the dreaded summer childcare problem.


  1. How many times have I been at a coffee shop and realized I don’t have my travel mug with me because, well, it’s annoying to tote around? One of my colleagues brought this insane collapsible mug to work and folks, my jaw fell to the floor.
  2. Did you know that there are collapsible food storage containers, too? I think you just found the solution to your plastic-guilt-ridden friend’s takeout waste woes.
  3. Look, your friend is also going to need a bigger backpack or purse to carry around all this stuff. It’s the price of admission; climbing stairs with my pocketbook is a core workout. I love secondhand, but I like Baggu.
  4. I want all the leftovers in my fridge to look like beautiful origami gifts. For anyone in your life who’s been yelling about metal straws, get them the even more useful alternative to plastic: pretty printed beeswax-coated cloth wrap.
  5. I understand that upscale water bottles are a cool teen trend now? I’m ancient, I suppose. But it’s definitely a more climate-conscious gift for your VSCO girl niece than a Kylie lip kit. I think Hydroflask is the thing.
  6. I’ve found that even in cities with municipal composting services, there are a ton of people who don’t compost simply because countertop compost bins are ugly, or smell bad, or any combination of the above. A sleek, charcoal-top compost bin takes care of all of the above, and I personally find there’s something super-satisfying about tucking your food waste in there.
  7. Sometimes, the town or city you live in takes a while to develop a municipal composting system. For the pal who’s always sighing about food waste, consider a home composter.
  8. Lots of communities have developed tool libraries, which are exactly what they sound like and prevent the unnecessary purchase of expensive tools for a few jobs around the house. If there’s someone on your gift list who’s been itching to try a lot of DIY projects or home repair, but just doesn’t have the necessary kit, buy them a year’s membership to a tool library.
  9. Isn’t everyone sick of Apple’s toxic cycle of planned obsolescence? A DIY iPhone fix kit is the path to freedom. At least, in this very specific instance.
  10. Your homeowner brother is always complaining about heating bills, because he is turning into your father. Introduce him to a smart thermostat like a Nest, and the fact that the real scourge is the carbon emissions from wasted heat, not the money required to keep his house at a comfortable temperature. (Don’t do that, unless you want to get uninvited from Christmas.)
  11. But let’s all listen to the Dads within us and keep the heat turned down low! Anyone trying to limit the carbon footprint of their household should own a super-snuggly, extra-luxe robe and slippers set to stay warm in the winter. It’s life-changing.
  12. Foldable, reusable shopping bags. This sounds deeply unsexy, I know, but I use my Baggu version pretty much every single day. No, I am not personally sponsored by Baggu.
  13. I have so many friends who host these gorgeous, elaborate dinners and then shame-facedly whip out a stack of paper napkins. It doesn’t have to be like this! A good tablecloth and napkin set reduces reliance on deforestation-dependent disposables and creates ambiance.
  14. Ditto a set of dishtowels, for the person who’s trying to cut their paper-towel habit.
  15. And if you have a friend who’s always dreamed of being a fancy lady or gentleman out of a Jane Austen novel, a handkerchief set eliminates a lot of Kleenex waste in the winter. You can buy them embroidered, or even monogrammed.
  16. If you’re gifted in the sewing department — bless you — you could even make the last three items yourself.
  17. Nothing like a mini Greta Thunberg On A Shelf to help your eco-friendly habits stick. (This is not a real product … but you could make one!)


  1. I know that kids are plied with advertising for a million dumb toys and gadgets a day, and that makes holiday shopping for them really hard. I’d challenge you to try to put together a gift bag of the weirdest things you can find at thrift stores — because kids also love weird things!
  2. Pay for your favorite animal-lover to take a farm tour in their area. It gives extra income to local farmers who could use it, and you usually get to snuggle (or pet) at least one of the animals.
  3. Who doesn’t fantasize about the kind of life where you lounge around in a beautifully lit breakfast nook on a Sunday morning, catching up on all your print magazines? You can at least facilitate the print magazine part. Get a subscription to a print magazine that does great reporting on the climate, like High Country News, California Sunday, The New Yorker, or Mother Jones.
  4. The slightly less Nancy Meyers, slightly more civically useful version of the above: Subscription to a local news outlet.
  5. Do you know someone who’s been meaning to restore their grandfather’s vintage record player since 2005? Offer to take on the repair or restoration yourself (even if that just means taking it to the shop.)
  6. Endless chores and household responsibilities keep a lot of people from getting involved in causes they want to get involved in! Offer to take on some of the cleaning load for a friend. Pay for a regular housekeeping service for a number of months, or commit to cleaning their home yourself!
  7. In the same vein: Cook dinner for your friend’s family a few times, or pay for takeout.
  8. Got a parent friend who wants to get involved in some local organizing but hasn’t had the time or childcare to make it happen? Your gift to them: a series of babysitting sessions.
  9. Perhaps you have a friend who’s felt guilty/frustrated/FOMO about not being more civically engaged? Buy them a 2020 planner and fill the first month with different community meetings that they can attend.
  10. If you’re close with someone who’s always wanted to learn more about some type of ecology or climate science, pay for them to take a local adult learning course on it. (Local colleges and environmental centers sometimes offer classes, too.)
  11. Look, books are excellent gifts, especially when you buy from local bookstores! And there are so many climate-focused or -adjacent books that are both thought-provoking and beautifully written. Here are just a handful of recommendations from me and my colleagues:
  12. Did you know even Googling things has a carbon impact? I know, everything is impossible. Any low-tech thing you can give that promotes offscreen hobbies — a sketchpad! An ancient keyboard synthesizer! A yoga studio membership! A jigsaw puzzle! — is probably not a bad move for both climate and mental health!
  13. I’m very conflicted about making this recommendation because so many of the companies that make them are terrible, but a videochat device like Facebook’s Portal can make long-distance friendships feel closer without carbon-intensive travel.
  14. Anyone who’s dealing with the realities of climate change could probably use a massage or a spa day of some kind. It’s a gift that’s usually appreciated and doesn’t require any manufacturing or shipping or disposal. Win-win.
  15. A donation to a climate-focused nonprofit in someone’s name: the most anticlimactic gift of all! Here are some Umbra tips to charitable giving.


  1. The secondhand clothing market is a crazy-easy alternative to fast fashion, and it also makes for way more interesting wardrobes. But sometimes the best finds are sequestered in upscale consignment shops or specially curated stores that are a little pricier than the secondhand newbie might want to spend on, let’s face it, someone else’s old clothes. Get a gift certificate to a particularly well-regarded vintage store in said newbie’s area to alleviate their anxiety.
  2. I don’t like to mend my clothes, even though I (sort of) know how, because my sewing kit is frankly a piece of shit that I bought at CVS a decade ago, and it makes me depressed. But there are so many cute, well-designed sewing kits out there that people with the best intentions of mending their clothes would love to have.
  3. Say your friend isn’t as amateur a seamstress as I am, but wants to take her skills up a notch. A sewing machine is a mending or make-your-own-clothes game-changer.
  4. Or, if you’re an experienced mender and a little low on cash, give your friends the gift of a mending group where you teach them how to repair their own clothes.
  5. Ask your friend which big-ticket, durable, staple clothing item they’ve been lusting after and think that they’ll wear and use for a long time, and buy it for them!
  6. How many beloved pairs of shoes have you discarded because of some easily fixable annoyance: a broken shoelace, a scuff, a hole in the sole. Solution, in gift form: nice shoelaces, a shoe polish kit, and a gift certificate to a cobbler, all wrapped up in a pretty box.
  7. I also need to share with you that one of my colleagues owns a shoehorn and reports that it is a “game changer.”
  8. If you have a clothing item that your friend has always coveted but can’t find in their size, have it tailored to their size and give it to them. (I also love this idea for family heirlooms!)
  9. Knitting needles + yarn = an antidote to disposable fashion, and apparently a really effective way to calm down.


  1. How many times have you heard “I wish I cooked at home more” from your takeout-reliant friend? How many times have you heard “I want to eat less meat, but I just don’t know what to make?” The breadth and quality of vegetarian or vegetable-focused cookbooks out there is astounding: Plenty and Plenty More by Yotam Ottolenghi, Six Seasons by Joshua McFadden, Chez Panisse Vegetables by Alice Waters, On Vegetables by Jeremy Fox (fancy), and How to Cook Everything Vegetarian by Mark Bittman (not fancy).
  2. For less money, a little more heart, and a lot more effort: Put together your own cookbook — with index cards and a 5×7 photo album — of your favorite vegetarian recipes.
  3. Fair-trade chocolate, coffee, or tea. Or all three, if you really like the person. (Here’s why it’s important.)
  4. Apparently all tea bags are full of microplastic? Sorry. But a metal tea steeper and a fancy set of loose-leaf tea are a) fancy-looking and b) low-waste.
  5. Throw in a vintage tea set, too, just for fun!
  6. For your cousin who’s addicted to Keurig, a programmable coffee maker (for the convenience) and high-quality grounds are going to change her life. Seriously, everything that comes out of those pods tastes terrible, and the compostable ones only work in places with municipal compost facilities.
  7. Maybe you’re a well-seasoned alternative protein expert, but you have a friend who’s still in the try-curious stage. Gift them an alternative meat starter pack: some samples of your favorite non-animal proteins (tofu! Seitan! Beyond Burgers! Crickets! I don’t care!), with handwritten recipes that you love for each one.
  8. The best solution to eating local when there’s nothing growing? Having canned or preserved everything that was ripe at the end of the summer. Get a canning kit so your friend can preserve their own local in-season produce and lord it over everyone else next winter.
  9. And to supply that local produce: A CSA subscription to a local farm.
  10. Or, for hyper-local produce: Help your friend build a raised bed in their yard to grow their own vegetables this summer. Bonus points if you also help them plant in the spring!
  11. I guess you need garden tools for that. If the tool library suggestion didn’t work out, buy some gardening essentials.
  12. No yard? Who needs one! Pay for your friend to get a community garden plot, and supplement it with a little window box for herbs.
  13. If you want to go hunter-gatherer, pay for a wild edibles identification class with a trained guide in your giftee’s area. And be very careful with the mushrooms.
  14. Or DIY it, and get them a guidebook to wild edibles. But again, be careful with the mushrooms.
  15. One reason people don’t cook at home is that they get intimidated by spices, an upfront expense that feels extra-annoying because you only use a teaspoon at a time. Buy your beginner cook someone a comprehensive spice kit.
  16. Another reason is terrible tools — specifically, terrible knives. One nice knife can improve the entire cooking experience.
  17. And one knife sharpener can keep that joy going, because yes, they need maintenance. A sharpening stone (or an electric sharpener for the more extensive knife collection perhaps) is a great gift.
  18. Maybe you have a friend who wants to cook more but straight up doesn’t know how, or needs some inspiration. Get them a cooking class, baby. Make it vegetable-centric, for extra climate points.
  19. A climate-friendly diet is one that’s mostly plant-based, but (at the risk of infuriating the most hardcore vegans) you can still get some animal products in there. The ones raised in ecologically conscious ways, however, are always more expensive. (For good reason!) Buy some special-occasion regeneratively raised steaks.
  20. The inconvenient truth of “eating for the planet” is that if you want ethically or ecologically-raised ingredients, they come at a premium. Get your friend a gift certificate to that excellently-sourced grocery store that they always say is just too expensive.
  21. Bring them a growler from a local brewery, already filled with their favorite brew and ready to be refilled after they drink it.

Thanks to Clayton Aldern, Laura Anderson, Jesse Nichols, and Kate Yoder for their help in gift brainstorming!

This story was originally published by Grist with the headline Need an idea for a climate-friendly gift? We have 79. on Dec 5, 2019.

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Work should be over when it gets dark

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The sun sets at 3:45 p.m. and yet we remain at our offices. Why?
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Even 50-year-old climate models correctly predicted global warming


Climate change doubters have a favorite target: climate models. They claim that computer simulations conducted decades ago didn’t accurately predict current warming, so the public should be wary of the predictive power of newer models. Now, the most sweeping evaluation of these older models—some half a century old—shows most of them were indeed accurate.

“How much warming we are having today is pretty much right on where models have predicted,” says the study’s lead author, Zeke Hausfather, a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley.

Climate scientists first began to use computers to predict future global temperatures in the early 1970s. That’s when newfound computing power coincided with a growing realization that rising carbon dioxide levels could boost global temperatures. As the issue gained public attention, critics questioned the reliability of rudimentary model predictions. Even a 1989 news article in Science radiated skepticism, stating that “climatologists may have a gut feeling that the greenhouse effect is heating up the Earth, but they have not been close to proving it.”

Today, the models are much more sophisticated. Mainframe computers driven by paper punch cards have given way to supercomputers running trillions of calculations in 1 second. Modern models account for myriad interactions, including ice and snow, changes in forest coverage, and cloud formation—things that early modelers could only dream of doing. But Hausfather and his colleagues still wanted to see how accurate those bygone models really were.

The researchers compared annual average surface temperatures across the globe to the surface temperatures predicted in 17 forecasts. Those predictions were drawn from 14 separate computer models released between 1970 and 2001. In some cases, the studies and their computer codes were so old that the team had to extract data published in papers, using special software to gauge the exact numbers represented by points on a printed graph.

Most of the models accurately predicted recent global surface temperatures, which have risen approximately 0.9°C since 1970. For 10 forecasts, there was no statistically significant difference between their output and historic observations, the team reports today in Geophysical Research Letters.

Seven older models missed the mark by as much as 0.1°C per decade. But the accuracy of five of those forecasts improved enough to match observations when the scientists adjusted a key input to the models: how much climate-changing pollution humans have emitted over the years. That includes greenhouse gases and aerosols, tiny particles that reflect sunlight. Pollution levels hinge on a host of unpredictable factors. Emissions might rise or fall because of regulations, technological advances, or economic booms and busts.

To take one example, Hausfather points to a famous 1988 model overseen by then–NASA scientist James Hansen. The model predicted that if climate pollution kept rising at an even pace, average global temperatures today would be approximately 0.3°C warmer than they actually are. That has helped make Hansen’s work a popular target for critics of climate science.

Hausfather found that most of this overshoot was caused not by a flaw in the model’s basic physics, however. Instead, it arose because pollution levels changed in ways Hansen didn’t predict. For example, the model overestimated the amount of methane—a potent greenhouse gas—that would go into the atmosphere in future years. It also didn’t foresee a precipitous drop in planet-warming refrigerants like some Freon compounds after international regulations from the Montreal Protocol became effective in 1989.

When Hausfather’s team set pollution inputs in Hansen’s model to correspond to actual historical levels, its projected temperature increases lined up with observed temperatures.

The new findings echo what many in the climate science world already know, says Piers Forster, an expert in climate modeling at the United Kingdom’s University of Leeds. Still, he says, “It’s nice to see it confirmed.”

Forster notes that even today’s computer programs have some uncertainties. But, “We know enough to trust our climate models” and their message that urgent action is needed, he says.

The new research is a useful exercise that “should provide some confidence that models can be used to help provide guidance regarding energy policies,” adds Hansen, now director of the Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions Program at Columbia University.

He communicated with Science from Madrid, where world leaders are gathering this week for the 25th annual United Nations climate conference. Delegates from around the world are negotiating how to implement emissions cuts agreed to at the 2016 meeting in Paris. Meanwhile, a U.N. report issued last month showed greenhouse gas emissions have continued to climb since then, and that many of the biggest polluting countries aren’t on track to meet their promises.

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Atmospheric Rivers Fuel Most Western U.S. Flooding. Climate Change Will Make Them Worse.

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As global temperatures rise, studies show there may be fewer atmospheric rivers, but they’ll tend to be more bigger and more intense.

Giant streams of moist air that curl off from the tropics are responsible for most of the flooding in the Western United States, and scientists say these atmospheric rivers will become more intense as the planet warms.

A new study is providing some insight into what that could mean for the future.

It shows how much damage the most intense atmospheric rivers today can already do, finding that just 10 atmospheric river events caused nearly half the flood damage in the U.S. West over the past four decades, adding up to billions of dollars.

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Why I Listen to Podcasts at 1x Speed


On my microblog I mentioned that I always listen to podcasts at 1x speed.

Here’s why:

We’re in danger, I think, of treating everything as if it’s some measure of our productivity. Number of steps taken, emails replied-to, articles read, podcasts listened-to.

While accomplishing things — or just plain getting our work done — is important, it’s also important that not everything go in that bucket. The life where everything is measured is not really a full life: we need room for the un-measured, the not-obsessed-about, the casual, the fun-for-fun’s sake.

So I’m in no hurry. I will never, ever be caught up on all the podcasts I’d like to listen to. So, instead, I just play whatever I feel like whenever I feel like listening.

I’ll miss things, and that’s totally fine. But, in the meantime, I get to listen to the human voice somewhat close to realistically, with its the natural human pauses, with its rhythms and flows relatively unmediated and natural. Its warmth and music means so much more to me than being caught up.

But, again — I’m not saying this is right for you. But I would remind people that we have choices about what falls under productivity and what doesn’t.

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How good have climate models been at truly predicting the future?

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A new paper from Hausfather and colleagues (incl. me) has just been published with the most comprehensive assessment of climate model projections since the 1970s. Bottom line? Once you correct for small errors in the projected forcings, they did remarkably well.

Climate models are a core part of our understanding of our future climate. They also have been frequently attacked by those dismissive of climate change, who argue that since climate models are inevitably approximations they have no predictive power, or indeed, that they aren’t even scientific.

In an upcoming paper in Geophysical Research Letters, Zeke Hausfather, Henri Drake, Tristan Abbott and I took a look at how well climate models have actually been able to accurately project warming in the years after they were published. This is an extension of the comparisons we have been making on RealClimate for many years, but with a broader scope and a deeper analysis. We gathered all the climate models published between 1970 and the mid-2000s that gave projections of both future warming and future concentrations of CO2 and other climate forcings – from Manabe (1970) and Mitchell (1970) through to CMIP3 in IPCC 2007.

We found that climate models – even those published back in the 1970s – did remarkably well, with 14 out of the 17 projections statistically indistinguishable from what actually occurred.

We evaluated these models both on how well modeled warming compared with observed warming after models were published, and how well the relationship between warming and CO2 (and other climate forcings) in models compares to observations (the implied transient climate response) (see Figure). The second approach is important because even if an old model had gotten all the physics right, the future projected warming would be off if they assumed we would have 450 ppm CO2 in 2020 (which some did!). Future emissions depend on human societal behavior, not physical systems, and we can usefully distinguish evaluation of climate models physics from paths of future concentrations.

Figure 2 from Hausfather et al (2019) showing the comparisons between model predictions and observations for a) the temperature trends (above) and b) the implied Transient Climate Response (TCR) which is the trend divided by the forcing and scaled to an equivalent 2xCO2 forcing.

However, it is not totally obvious how one should correct for the forcing assumptions because of subtle issues related to the different efficacy of different forcings and, of course, the remaining uncertainty in the real value of the actual forcings (driven predominantly by the aerosol component). For forcing projections that were close to linear, this didn’t make that much difference, but for scenarios that weren’t (notably scenario C in Hansen et al (1988)), the correction does not work well.

There are a few other results that stand out, notably the (infamous?) low sensitivity result in Rasool and Schneider (1971), which was mainly due to a lack of stratospheric adjustment and water vapor short wave absorption in their formulation. This was noted by Schneider (1975) and the calculation redone by Schneider and Thompson (1981) which turned out to be far more accurate. On the other hand, only Mitchell (1970) appears to have substantially overestimated the TCR – even while he predicted the temperature rise quite accurately (due to a compensation between a too large sensitivity and an underestimate of the forcings). [Amusing aside, both Manabe’s and Mitchell’s 1970 projections appeared in a special volume on the Global Effects of Environmental Pollution, reporting on an 1968 AAAS workshop and edited by (the now-notorious) S. Fred Singer before he went off the deep end].

It’s worth noting that this comparison includes two kinds of climate model – those published prior to 1988 which are energy balance models of varying complexity, and those published afterwards which are true GCMs and include atmospheric (and eventually, ocean) dynamics. Of the early models, the work of Sawyer (1972) stands out as being the most accurate in terms of both temperature trends and forcings, though this must be considered somewhat fortuitous.

The fact that both classes of climate model did so well in projecting future warming should increase our confidence that current climate models are getting things right for mostly the right reasons. While there are still real uncertainties in future warming associated with climate sensitivity, we can confidently state that the rate of surface warming we are experiencing today is pretty much what past climate models projected it would be.

Gosh, maybe we know something about climate after all!

Note: all the data and code for this study are available here.


  1. Z. Hausfather, H.F. Drake, T. Abbott, and G.A. Schmidt, "Evaluating the performance of past climate model projections", Geophysical Research Letters, 2019.
  2. S.I. Rasool, and S.H. Schneider, "Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Aerosols: Effects of Large Increases on Global Climate", Science, vol. 173, pp. 138-141, 1971.
  3. S.H. Schneider, "On the Carbon Dioxide–Climate Confusion", Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 32, pp. 2060-2066, 1975.<2060:OTCDC>2.0.CO;2
  4. S.H. Schneider, and S.L. Thompson, "Atmospheric CO2and climate: Importance of the transient response", Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 86, pp. 3135, 1981.
  5. "Global Effects of Environmental Pollution", 1970.
  6. J.S. SAWYER, "Man-made Carbon Dioxide and the “Greenhouse” Effect", Nature, vol. 239, pp. 23-26, 1972.
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